In-situ Metallography and replication is used for microstructural analysis when examining large components that cannot be easily moved or destructive sample preparation is difficult or not permissible. In-situ Metallography allows for quick on-site evaluation of a component’s metallurgical and heat treatment condition and assist investigators when carrying out a remaining life assessment study or a failure analysis project.
A means of locating defects in steel. When acoustic energy in the ultrasonic range is passed through steel, the sound waves tend to travel in straight lines, rather than diffusing in all directions as they do in the audible range. If there is a defect in the path of the beam it will cause a reflection of some of the energy, depleting the energy transmitted. This casts an acoustic shadow, which can be monitored by a detector placed opposite the transducer or energy source. If the acoustic energy is introduced as a very short burst, then the reflected energy coming back to the originating transducer can also be used to show the size and depth of the defect. Ultrasonic techniques can be used to detect deeply located defects or those contained in the surface layer.
Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements. Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw detection/evaluation, dimensional measurements, material characterization, and more.
Coating thickness is an important variable that plays a role in product quality, process control, and cost control. Measurement of film thickness can be done with many different instruments. Commonly used measuring techniques for cured organic films include nondestructive dry film methods such as magnetic, eddy current, ultrasonic, or micrometer measurement and also destructive dry film methods such as cross-sectioning or gravimetric (mass) measurement. Methods are also available for powder and liquid coatings to measure the film before it is cured
This method employs a penetrating liquid, which is applied over the surface of the component and enters the discontinuity or crack. Subsequently, after the excess penetrant has been cleared from the surface, the penetrant exudes or is drawn back out of the crack is observed. Liquid penetrant testing can be applied to any non-porous clean material, metallic or non-metallic, but is unsuitable for dirty or very rough surfaces. Penetrants can contain a dye to make the indication visible under white light, or a fluorescent material that fluoresces under suitable ultra-violet light. Fluorescent penetrants are usually used when the maximum flaw sensitivity is required. Cracks as narrow as 150 nanometers can be detected.
The weldability of steels is inversely proportional to a property known as the hardenability of the steel, which measures the ease of forming martensite during heat treatment. The hardenability of steel depends on its chemical composition, with greater quantities of carbon and other alloying elements resulting in a higher hardenability and thus a lower weldability.
Non-Destructive visual inspections can be preformed on-site or at the laboratory facility, and are based upon the requirements of the client or specification. Industries utilizing this service include Fabrication, Construction, Automotive, Power Generation and Transportation. Inspections can be performed at the laboratory facility or onsite.
This testing is normally used for on-site applications or on very large samples. The portable hardness unit performs the hardness testing by applying a 5 kg. Vickers load indenter and electronically converts the values in the preferred scale.
The velocity of ultrasonic pulses travelling in a solid material depends on the density and elastic properties of that material. The quality of some materials is sometimes related to their elastic stiffness so that measurement of ultrasonic pulse velocity in such materials can often be used to indicate their quality as well as to determine their elastic properties. Materials, which can be assessed in this way, include, in particular, concrete and timber but exclude metals. When ultrasonic testing is applied to metals its object is to detect internal flaws, which send echoes back in the direction of the incident beam, and these are picked up by a receiving transducer. The measurement of the time taken for the pulse to travel from a surface to a flaw and back again enables the position of the flaw to be located.
Before the renovation and modernization / life extension programme, it is mandatory to conduct Residual Life Assessment study (RLA) of all critical components, which brings into notice for mandatory replacement / modifications necessary to guarantee a minimum 75% plant load factor and 85% plant availability.
Often, existing concrete structures will need to examined and tested to ensure the concrete remains of adequate strength and durability.
A rapid method of assessing whether there may be any delamination of the concrete surface is to conduct a hammer sounding. This involves striking the concrete surface and listening for a noise, distinctive to the trained operator of delamination.
Positive Material Identification service is fast becoming an integral part of process safety management in the petroleum refining, petrochemical and electric power generation industries in India. Using various X-Ray Florescence (XRF) instruments, XRF can provide elemental identification and quantitative determination without regard to form, size and shape. No samples need to be cut during PMI.
Ferrography, or wear-particle analysis, is the complete analytical method of separation and identification of all particles suspended in the used lubricating oils, hydraulic fluids, coolants and fuels of any oil-wetted machinery.
Several types of wear can be identified through Analytical Ferrography, such as rubbing wear, abrasive wear, adhesive wear, cutting wear, corrosive wear, spalling, and spheres. It also identifies both red and black oxides as well as sand and dust particles.
It is a qualitative, rather than quantitative analysis that provides digital imagery of the actual particles present. Ferrous particles are trapped by powerful magnets and deposited on slides in patterns while non-ferrous and other wear debris particles are deposited randomly for microscopic analysis. Particles are analyzed based on metallic or non-metallic, alloy (determined by heat treatment), shape, size, color, and if possible, source.