This is an expensive technique compared to the other non destructive techniques and is predominantly used to detect internal flaws in casting and weldments. This technique involves the use of penetrating gamma or X-radiation to examine parts and products for imperfections. An X-ray machine or radioactive isotope is used as a source of radiation. Radiation is directed through a part and onto film or other media. The resulting shadowgraph shows the internal soundness of the part. Possible imperfections are indicated as density changes in the film in the same manner as an X-ray shows broken bones.
Radiographic applications fall into two distinct categories evaluation of material properties and evaluation of manufacturing and assembly properties. Material property evaluation includes the determination of composition, density, uniformity, and cell or particle size. Manufacturing and assembly property evaluation is normally concerned with dimensions, flaws (voids, inclusions, and cracks), bond integrity (welds, brazes, etc.), and verification of proper assembly of component pieces.